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I don't qualify to even carry the lens cap for some others on this forum, but I'll chip in my two cents ...
As others have mentioned previously, less shutter speed and/or higher iso will get your in-camera shot to look more like your Photoshopped version. The better you expose, the less noise you'll see. When your exposure has to be brought up in post, you'll amplify the noise. Heavy cropping will reveal more noise as well, so tighter is better (of course, you're limited by the equipment you have available. I'm assuming picking up a 300 2.8 next week is not an option ...).
Try shooting through the glass behind the goal. You'll get better 'face' shots and you'll be much closer to the action. You'll lose a little light, a little sharpness, and some contrast but the ability to shoot tight can often times give you just as sharp a shot as having to substantially crop an over-the-glass shot. You can adjust your settings to compensate or adjust in post, but it's an option you should explore to see what your results are. Try to pick a spot that's reasonably clear to shoot through and keep your lens as close to the glass as possible to avoid reflections (I put my lens hood right on the glass for these shots).
I'm with the guys previous, I shoot a 1D3 and my standard starting point for HS hockey is 6400 iso @ 1/400 using a 70-200 @ 2.8 and it's usually not far from correct.
Are you shooting in RAW or JPG? RAW gives you much more room to adjust your photos in post. Of course, the goal here is to reduce your post processing, but RAW can save a great shot that wasn't exposed properly and it will also allow you to adjust the color temperature which can help you set it properly next time you return to that rink. Whatever you're doing, the post-processed shot looks great - nice exposure and popping colors.
Are you using any noise reduction software? If not, it can make a substantial difference in your end result. As a sample you can try Noiseware's free version. That may encourage you to shoot at a higher iso and either get a better exposure or a faster shutter speed with the same exposure.
As long as your next gig isn't a paid appearance, experiment with different settings and shooting locations. While this forum will significantly reduce the learning curve, half the fun is trying different things to see what works best for you.
Thanks for posting! We all learn a little by these discussions and I guarantee you that there are plenty of budding hockey shooters that are also following this thread with great interest ...