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In addition to white balance, you can use the Passport or classic Color Checker chart to calibrate your camera's color response and create custom profiles for use with software like Photoshop or Lightroom.
They can also help with avoiding clipping of shadow and highlight values by using the white and black squares on the chart - especially highlights since you can look for "blinkies" in the light squares of the chart. Of course, you may still have scenes where the dynamic range of the scene exceeds the capabilities of the camera and where sacrifices will still need to be made.
Color casts coming from near-by objects (a ceiling in your case; another example is green grass or foliage) are usually handled with local adjustments but in some circumstances can be handled globally.
If the cast impacts everything in the scene, you can just do a global white balance adjustment. When using the Passport or Color Checker, you would just make sure the chart was reflecting that same cast so you can correct it properly later.
For cases where the cast is impacting only certain elements of the scene, you will need to use a local adjustment. This could be the adjustment brush in Lightroom or and adjustment layer with mask in Photoshop.
Just how picky you need to be regarding cast removal is somewhat subjective. Sometimes it's the cast that provides character or clues as to where or when the photo was taken. Using a color chart often gives you a useful benchmark to refer to though, even if you ultimately choose to partially or totally ignore it for the final image.