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Flash temperature is typically around 5000k-5000K. I looked at the product manual for the Quadra and didn't see any spec saying what the K temp was, but just go with the flash icon (same as if you were using a hotshoe flash) on your camera and you should be fine. Post up a question over in the Lighting Forum, and I'm sure someone there will have a more definitive answer @ the Kelvin temp. The indication that you did actually use AWB, explains the color shift with the camera trying to contend with all that yellow.
As to a book that teaches how to light, the go to for a baseline reference on lighting by many is considered to be:
Light: Science & Magic
It isn't going to give you "ready recipes" ... but, instead it addresses a multitude of conditions and scenarios relative to the physics (in a layman's language) of how light behaves and how we garner control of those unchanging behavioral characteristics of light. It is a good read and comes highly recommended by many FM'ers ... many good ones over in the Forum.
The link is to version 4, but there aren't going to be many changes from version 3 since light hasn't changed any since Creation so there is really no reason a person shouldn't have this in their library for reference. You'll certainly want more "application specific" books like Karen has recommended as they will steer your toward the nuances of the subject, whereas Light: Science & Magic is instructive @ light behavior as it works through (and builds upon) a variety of advancing scenarios.
It is a must read, imo, no matter what genre you're shooting. That way, when an "application specific" recommendation is being made, you can see the rationale behind what it is intended to help you achieve.
Understanding relative to your subject genre (i.e. portraiture, flowers, cars, industrial, scenic, etc.), and understanding light itself ... then putting the two together @ how you envision and want to present them is limitless. I think you are good to approach understanding vs. formulaic emulation (although it can be a quick result producer). It takes a bit longer to digest ... but once you've got it, it's like the difference between being a chef or reading from a recipe card, it starts in your head and comes out of you, rather than you replicating someone else ideas.