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Canon doesn't give two shakes about the lower-end printers and makes color managed printing a nightmare with them. It will all be much clearer when you have a Pro-1/10/100 in front of you with helpfully-named profiles and a driver intended to be used in that way.
Basically, in your current situation, you'll probably have a half dozen profiles, named helpful things like "PR2" and "SG3". You have to know which paper's which from the two-letter code, and guess which one to use for other papers, and then know that a lower number is a higher quality setting. Depending on the age of your printer, Canon may or may not have updated the driver to work properly with color management.
With the PIXMA Pro line, you'll get actual names, everything's functional, and they also supply plugins for Photoshop and Lightroom if even the normal print workflow is too difficult to decipher (which it shouldn't be).
Workflow with a "real" printer:
1. Configure LR print module for LR Manages Color.
2. Pick ICC profile matching your paper. Pick a rendering intent.