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Does the Nikon TC-14E II perform better than the TC-14E?
The TC-14E and TC-14E II are optically, mechanically and functionally 100% identical. The only difference is external cosmetics. The TC-14E cosmetics and styling match the older manual focus TC-14A and TC-14B teleconverters. The TC-14E II cosmetics match the crinkle finish on the AF-S super-telephotos. The TC-14E is marked "AF-I Teleconverter" (since there were no AF-S lenses when it was introduced), but it also drives AF-S lenses. The TC-14E II is marked "AF-S Teleconverter", but it also drives the older AF-I lenses.
One sure difference you can count on is that a TC-14E II will always be "newer", but given that the only moving parts are the stopdown lever and AI ridge linkages, that hardly matters.
As to whether the Nikon teleconverters perform better than the Kenko or Tamron converters, I suspect that's probably going to depend a lot on what master lens is mounted in front of the converter. I have a Tamron AF SP 1.4X (identical to Kenko Pro 300 1.4X) and in some quick tests with an AF 80~200/2.8D this past summer I didn't see a lot of difference between the Tamron and my Nikon TC-14E (which is modified to fit the AF-D lens). That was a bit of a surprise to me as I expected the Nikon to perform noticeably better. But another master lens with the TC-14E and the Tamron/Kenko might give very different results in favour of the Nikon teleconverter.